Woop is a scientific strategy
that people can use to find and
fulfill their wishes and change their habits…

WOOP Book Book WOOP App App

It is also known as Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) in the scientific literature. It was created as a result of over 20 years of scientific research and has proven to be effective across ages and life domains.

Health domain

  • Woop doubled regular physical exercise over a time period of four months and increased fruitand vegetable intake by 30% over the period of two years.
    — Stadler, Oettingen, & Gollwitzer, 2009, 2010
  • Woop helped chronic pain patients to become more physically active during rehabilitation three months thereafter.
    — Christiansen, Oettingen, Dahme, & Klinger, 2010
  • Woop helped patients suffering from Type II Diabetes to improve their self-care.
    — Adriaanse, De Ridder, & Voorneman, 2013

Academic domain

  • Woop increased attendance and course grades of school children from disadvantaged backgrounds.
    — Duckworth, Kirby, A. Gollwitzer, & Oettingen, 2013
  • Woop improved homework of children at risk for ADHD.
    — Gawrilow, Morgenroth, Schultz, Oettingen, & Gollwitzer, 2013
  • Woop increased high school students’ effort to prepare for standardized tests by 60%.
    — Duckworth, Grant, Loew, Oettingen, & Gollwitzer, 2011

Interpersonal domain

  • Woop reduced insecurity-based behaviors (e.g., looking through the partner’s phone log) and increased commitment in romantic relationships.
    — Houssais, Oettingen, & Mayer, 2013
  • Woop lead to more integrative solutions and fairer behavior in bargaining games.
    — Kirk, Oettingen, & Gollwitzer, 2013
  • Woop increased tolerance and social responsibility towards members of prejudiced groups.
    — Oettingen, Mayer, Thorpe, Janetzke, & Lorenz, 2005

Why
is WOOP important?

“Think positive!” quotes are nowadays found everywhere, but contrary to popular believe, positive thinking about the future leads to poor performance and success. Research over the past 15 years finds that dreaming about a desired future leads to low investment and little success, regardless of life domains, such as health, work, and interpersonal relationships. In order to benefit from positive thinking about the future people need to incorporate in that positive thinking a clear sense of reality.

Mental Contrasting (the Wish, Outcome, and Obstacle part of WOOP) is a visualization technique that incorporates this sense of reality: It helps people to gain insight into their wishes and to clearly identify the obstacles that stand in the way of realizing these wishes. WOOP is an evidence-based self-regulatory strategy that people can use effectively on their own to change their behavior across everyday life (e.g., health, school, work, play, relationships) and across the life cycle (e.g., from childhood to old age).

How does WOOP work?

WOOP, which stands for Wish Outcome Obstacle Plan, is a conscious exercise leading to strategic automaticity: The Wish, Outcome, and Obstacle part of WOOP builds nonconscious associations between future and reality and between the obstacles and the actions to overcome the obstacles. These associations provide energy and foster the mastery of set-backs. The Plan-part of WOOP further helps to overcome difficult obstacles by strengthening the association between obstacles and actions even more.

now available!
WOOP Book
  • "Every day of our lives, our mind diverts into private thoughts — wishful dreams of our future, regrets and ruminations over what went wrong yesterday, nervous anticipation about tomorrow. Gabriele Oettingen's book is the single best guide to the power and consequence of these private thoughts. It will teach you nothing less than how to think better."
    — Po Bronson, coauthor of Nurtureshock and Top Dog
  • “This book is a wise delight. Some kinds of positive thinking are beneficial, other kinds are downright dangerous, and Gabriele Oettingen has spent her scientific career figuring out which are which. The fruits of her labor are deep, plentiful, and yours for the taking.”
    — Daniel Gilbert, Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology, Harvard University, and author of Stumbling on Happiness
  • "How do you get from dreaming to doing? This exciting and important book shows you how to turn your dreams into reality. You'll be surprised at how thoroughly it overturns conventional wisdom."
    — Carol S. Dweck, Lewis & Virginia Eaton Professor of Psychology, Stanford University, and author of Mindset
  • “Gabriele Oettingen presents a well-written thought-provoking evidence-based self-help book. Hers is an intriguing approach to overcoming life challenges at all ages. It is a worthy read.”
    — James Joseph Heckman, Henry Schultz Distinguished Service Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago, Winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics
  • “I was once asked by educators to identify the single most effective intervention for improving self-control. Every scientist I spoke to referred me to the work summarized here—masterfully and with incomparable insight and warmth. Read this brilliant book and then go out and do what Gabriele Oettingen recommends. It will change the way you think about making your dreams come true.”
    — Angela Duckworth, Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, and 2013 MacArthur Fellow
  • “Want to quit smoking, lose weight, get better grades, sustain healthier relationships, or negotiate effectively? Then this easy-to-read book, based on twenty-plus years of empirical research, is for you. Setting a goal, visualizing the obstacles, and then charting a path sounds so straightforward—but guess what? It works!”
    — Gary Latham, Secretary of State Professor of Organizational Effectiveness at the Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto
  • “Gabriele Oettingen, one of the world’s leading experts on the psychology of motivation, presents a forceful, scientifically based challenge to the “power of positive thinking.” This eminently practical book is a much needed and welcome corrective.”
    — Laurence Steinberg, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, Temple University, and author of Age of Opportunity: Lessons from the New Science of Adolescence
  • "Gabriele Oettingen approaches the subject of positive thinking with a scientist's passionate curiosity. She is open to anything she might find and truly seeks to discover what works—and what doesn't. What she found will surprise you, as it did me, and will make you eager to try her methods."
    — Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck, writer, director (The Lives of Others; The Tourist), and winner of Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

Rethinking Positive Thinking
Inside the New Science of Motivation

Preorder now available on Amazon, Barnes & Noble, IndieBound, Books-A-Million

Penguinrandomhouse.com

“The solution isn’t to do away with dreaming and positive thinking. Rather, it’s making the most of our fantasies by brushing them up against the very thing most of us are taught to ignore or diminish: the obstacles that stand in our way.”

So often in our day-to-day lives we’re inundated with advice to “think positively.” From pop music to political speeches to commercials, the general message is the same: look on the bright side, be optimistic in the face of adversity, and focus on your dreams. And whether we’re trying to motivate ourselves to lose weight, snag a promotion at work, or run a marathon, we’re told time and time again that focusing on fulfilling our wishes will make them come true.

Gabriele Oettingen draws on more than twenty years of research in the science of human motivation to reveal why the conventional wisdom falls short. The obstacles that we think prevent us from realizing our deepest wishes can actually lead to their fulfillment. Starry- eyed dreaming isn’t all it’s cracked up to be, and as it turns out, dreamers are not often doers.

While optimism can help us alleviate immediate suffering and persevere in challenging times, merely dreaming about the future actually makes people more frustrated and unhappy over the long term and less likely to achieve their goals. In fact, the pleasure we gain from positive fantasies allows us to fulfill our wishes virtually, sapping our energy to perform the hard work of meeting challenges and achieving goals in real life. Based on her groundbreaking research and large-scale scientific studies, Oettingen introduces a new way to visualize the future called “mental contrasting.” It combines focusing on our dreams with visualizing the obstacles that stand in our way. By experiencing our dreams in our minds and facing reality we can address our fears, make concrete plans, and gain energy to take action.

In Rethinking Positive Thinking, Oettingen applies mental contrasting to three key areas of personal change— becoming healthier, nurturing personal and professional relationships, and performing better at work. She introduces readers to the key phases of mental contrasting using a proven four-step process called WOOP—Wish, Outcome, Obstacle, Plan—and offers advice and exercises on how to best apply this method to daily life. Through mental contrasting, people in Oettingen’s studies have become significantly more motivated to quit smoking, lose weight, get better grades, sustain fulfilling relationships, and negotiate more effectively in business situations. Whether you are unhappy and struggling with serious problems or you just want to improve, discover, and explore new opportunities, this book will deepen your ideas about human motivation and help you boldly chart a new path ahead.

WOOP College App

Download the app for iOS or Android

WOOP app in App Store WOOP app on Google Play
 

WOOP to and through college

supports you on your way to and through college. The app teaches you WOOP, a strategy that helps you to fulfill your wishes and achieve your goals. The strategy builds on twenty years of empirical research in the science of motivation and has proven to be most effective for mastering one’s everyday life and long-term development.

The app allows you to save your wishes and goals, to share them with your friends and observe your progress. It offers you information about the important steps to get to and through college, and supports you in actually taking those steps. The app empowers you to get to and through college!

With support from:

Bill and Meldina Gates Foundation Facebook College Summit King Center
  • "My wishes come true whenever I use WOOP to achieve them."
  • "My emotions have changed a lot. The WOOP use has helped me kind of control them."
  • "Since I started using it my goals have gotten bigger and I feel my accomplishments more."
  • "...I have gotten a lot of confidence using this method."
  • "...WOOP has changed the way of my life."
  • "There is always an escape plan from the obstacle that is blocking my way from success."

Students who use WOOP
WOOP Buissnes APP

WOOP for business

is tailored to support you in your daily business life. The app teaches you WOOP, a strategy that helps you to fulfill your wishes and achieve your goals. The app allows you to save your goals and observe your progress. Trough teaching you the WOOP strategy, the app empowers you to sort out what is important in your day to day routine business and to actually do and achieve what you really want.

Download the app for iOS or Android

WOOP app in App Store WOOP app on Google Play
 

Audio

You want to try WOOP?
Try our WOOP audio tutorial. It leads you through WOOP step by step.


WOOP audio tutorial, listen in the player above or download and listen later.


WOOP audio 24 hours, download audio.


WOOP master in a week, download audio.


Try WOOP master in a month, download audio.

Copyright © 2014 Gabriele Oettingen

Press

Science

  • Adriaanse, M. A., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., Hennes, E. P., de Ridder, D. T. D., & de Wit, J. B. F. (2010). When planning is not enough: Fighting unhealthy snacking habits by mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 1277-1293. doi:10.1002/ejsp.730 read
  • Duckworth, A. L., Grant, H., Loew, B., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Self- regulation strategies improve self-discipline in adolescents: Benefits of mental contrasting and implementation intentions. Educational Psychology, 31, 17-26. doi:10.1080/01443410.2010.506003 read
  • Duckworth, A. L., Kirby, T. A., Gollwitzer, A., & Oettingen, G. (2013). From fantasy to action: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) improves academic performance in children. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 745-753. doi: 10.1177/1948550613476307 read
  • Gawrilow, C., Morgenroth, K., Schultz, R., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Mental contrasting with implementation intentions enhances self-regulation of goal pursuit in schoolchildren at risk for ADHD. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 134-145. read
  • Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493-503. read
  • Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69-119. read
  • Houssais, S., Oettingen, G., & Mayer, D. (2013). Using mental contrasting with implementation intentions to self-regulate insecurity-based behaviors in relationships. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 224-233. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9307-4 read
  • Kirk, D., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Promoting integrative bargaining: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions. International Journal of Conflict Management, 24, 148-165. read
  • Oettingen, G. (2000). Expectancy effects on behavior depend on self-regulatory thought. Social Cognition, 18, 101-129. doi:10.1521/soco.2000.18.2.101 read
  • Oettingen, G. (2012). Future thought and behaviour change. European Review of Social Psychology, 23, 1-63. doi:10.1080/10463283.2011.643698 read
  • Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Strategies of setting and implementing goals: Mental contrasting and implementation intentions. In J. E. Maddux & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Social psychological foundations of clinical psychology (pp. 114-135). New York: Guilford. read
  • Oettingen, G., & Mayer, D. (2002). The motivating function of thinking about the future: Expectations versus fantasies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1198-1212. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.83.5.1198 read
  • Oettingen, G., Wittchen, M., & Gollwitzer, P. (2013). Regulating goal pursuit through mental contrasting with implementation intentions. In E. A. Locke & G. P. Latham (Eds.), New developments in goal setting and task performance (pp. 523-548). New York, NY: Routledge. read
  • Achtziger, A., Fehr, T., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Rockstroh, B. (2009). Strategies of intention formation are reflected in continuous MEG activity. Social Neuroscience, 4, 11-27. doi:10.1080/17470910801925350
  • Gilbert, S. J., Gollwitzer, P. M., Cohen, A.-L., Oettingen, G., & Burgess, P. W. (2009). Separable brain systems supporting cued versus self-initiated realization of delayed intentions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 905-915. doi:10.1037/a0015535
  • Gollwitzer, P. M., Parks-Stamm, E. J., & Oettingen, G. (2009). Living on the edge: Shifting between nonconscious and conscious goal pursuit. In E. Morsella, J. A. Bargh, & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Oxford handbook of human action (pp. 603-624). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Embodied goal pursuit. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 1210-1213. doi:10.1002/ejsp.685
  • Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Making goal pursuit effective: Expectancy-dependent goal setting and planned goal striving. In J. P. Forgas, R. F. Baumeister, & D. M. Tice (Eds.), Psychology of self-regulation: Cognitive, affective, and motivational processes (pp. 127-146). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  • Oettingen, G., & Kappes, A. (2009). Mental contrasting of the future and reality to master negative feedback. In K. D. Markman, W. M. P. Klein, & J. A. Suhr, (Eds.), Handbook of imagination and mental simulation (pp. 395-412). New York: Psychology Press.
  • Oettingen, G., Mayer, D., Sevincer, A. T., Stephens, E. J., Pak, H., & Hagenah, M. (2009). Mental contrasting and goal commitment: The mediating role of energization. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 608-622. doi:10.1177/0146167208330856
  • Oettingen, G., & Stephens, E. J. (2009). Fantasies and motivationally intelligent goal setting. In G. B. Moskowitz & H. Grant (Eds.), The psychology of goals (pp. 153-178). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Sevincer, A. T., & Oettingen, G. (2009). Alcohol breeds empty goal commitments. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 623-633. doi:10.1037/a0016199
  • Stadler, G., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Physical activity in women: Effects of a self-regulation intervention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36, 29-34. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.09.021
  • Adriaanse, M. A., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., Hennes, E. P., de Ridder, D. T. D., & de Wit, J. B. F. (2010). When planning is not enough: Fighting unhealthy snacking habits by mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 1277–1293. doi:10.1002/ejsp.730
  • Bargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2010). Motivation. In S. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzay (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (5th ed., pp. 268-316). New York: Wiley.
  • Christiansen, S., Oettingen, G., Dahme, B., & Klinger, R. (2010). A short goal-pursuit intervention to improve physical capacity: A randomized clinical trial in chronic back pain patients. Pain, 149, 444-452. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2009.12.015
  • Gollwitzer, P. M., Gawrilow, C., & Oettingen, G. (2010). The power of planning: Self-control by effective goal-striving. In R. R. Hassin, K. N. Ochsner, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Self control in society, mind, and brain (pp. 279-296). New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391381.003.0015.
  • Klasen, F., Oettingen, G., Daniels, J., Post, M., & Adam, H. (2010). Multiple trauma and mental health in former Ugandan child soldiers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 573-581. doi:10.1002/jts.20557
  • Klasen, F., Oettingen, G., Daniels, J., Post, M., Hoyer, C., & Adam, H. (2010). Posttraumatic resilience in former Ugandan child soldiers. Child Development, 81, 1096–1113. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01456.x
  • Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Strategies of setting and implementing goals: Mental contrasting and implementation intentions. In J. E. Maddux & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Social psychological foundations of clinical psychology (pp. 114-135). New York: Guilford.
  • Oettingen, G., Mayer, D., & Brinkmann, B. (2010). Mental contrasting of future and reality: Managing the demands of everyday life in health care professionals. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 138-144. doi:10.1027/1866-5888/a000018
  • Oettingen, G., Mayer, D., & Thorpe, J. (2010). Self-regulation of commitment to reduce cigarette consumption: Mental contrasting of future with reality. Psychology and Health, 25, 961-977. doi:10.1080/08870440903079448
  • Oettingen, G., Stephens, E. J., Mayer, D., & Brinkmann, B. (2010). Mental contrasting and the self-regulation of helping relations. Social Cognition, 28, 490-508. doi:10.1521/soco.2010.28.4.490
  • Parks-Stamm, E. J., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2010). Implementation intentions and test anxiety: Shielding academic performance from distraction. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 30-33. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2009.09.001
  • Parks-Stamm, E. J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Making sense of one's actions in an explanatory vacuum: The interpretation of nonconscious goal striving. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 531-542. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2010.02.004
  • Stadler, G., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2010). Intervention effects of information and self-regulation on eating fruits and vegetables over two years. Health Psychology, 29, 274-283. doi:10.1037/a0018644
  • Duckworth, A. L., Grant, H., Loew, B., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Self-regulation strategies improve self-discipline in adolescents: Benefits of mental contrasting and implementation intentions. Educational Psychology, 31, 17-26. doi:10.1080/01443410.2010.506003
  • Gawrilow, C., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2011). If-then plans benefit delay of gratification performance in children with and without ADHD. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 442-455. doi:10.1007/s10608-010-9309-z
  • Gawrilow, C., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2011). If-then plans benefit executive functions in children with ADHD. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30, 616-646. doi:10.1521/jscp.2011.30.6.616
  • Gollwitzer, A., Oettingen, G., Kirby, T., Duckworth, A., & Mayer, D. (2011). Mental contrasting facilitates academic performance in school children. Motivation and Emotion, 35(4), 403-412. doi: 10.1007/s11031-011-9222-0
  • Gollwitzer, P. M., Kappes, H. B., & Oettingen, G. (2011). Needs and incentives as sources of goals. In H. Aarts & A. Elliot (Eds.), Goal-directed behavior (pp. 115-149). Philadelphia: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  • Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2011). Planning promotes goal striving. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed., pp. 162-185). New York: Guilford.
  • Kappes, H. B., & Oettingen, G. (2011). Positive fantasies about idealized futures sap energy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 719-729. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2011.02.003
  • Kappes, H. B., Oettingen, G., Mayer, D., & Maglio, S. (2011). Sad mood promotes self-initiated mental contrasting of future and reality. Emotion, 11, 1206-1222. doi:10.1037/a0023983
  • Kappes, H. B., Stephens, E. J., & Oettingen, G. (2011). Implicit theories moderate the relation of positive future fantasies to academic outcomes. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 269-278. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2011.02.006
  • Kirk, D., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Mental contrasting promotes integrative bargaining. International Journal of Conflict Management, 22, 324-341.
  • Achtziger, A., Martiny, S. E., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Meta-cognitive processes in the self-regulation of goal pursuit. In P. Briñol & K. DeMarree (Eds.), Social meta-cognition. Frontier of Social Psychology Series (pp. 121-139). New York: Psychology Press.
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  • Johannessen, K. B., Oettingen, G., & Mayer, D. (2012). Mental contrasting of a dieting wish improves self-reported health behaviour. Psychology and Health, 27, 43–58. doi 10.1080/08870446.2011.626038
  • Kappes, A., Oettingen, G., & Pak, H. (2012). Mental contrasting and the self-regulation of responding to negative feedback. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 845-857. doi:10.1177/0146167212446833
  • Kappes, A., Singmann, H., & Oettingen, G. (2012). Mental contrasting instigates goal-pursuit by linking obstacles of reality with instrumental behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 811-818. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.02.002
  • Kappes, H. B., & Oettingen, G. (2012). Wishful information preference: Positive fantasies mimic the effects of intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 870-881. doi: 10.1177/0146167212446163
  • Kappes, H. B., Oettingen, G., & Mayer, D. (2012). Positive fantasies predict low academic achievement in disadvantaged students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 53-64. doi 10.1002/ejsp.838
  • Kappes, H. B., Schwörer, B., & Oettingen, G. (2012). Needs instigate positive fantasies of idealized futures. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 299-307. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1854
  • Oettingen, G. (2012). Future thought and behaviour change. European Review of Social Psychology, 23, 1-63. doi: 10.1080/10463283.2011.643698
  • Oettingen, G., Marquardt, M. K., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Mental contrasting turns positive feedback on creative potential into successful performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 990-996. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.03.008
  • Sevincer, A. T., Oettingen, G., & Lerner, T. (2012). Alcohol affects goal commitment by explicitly and implicitly induced myopia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 524-529. doi:10.1037/a0025931
  • Duckworth, A. L., Kirby, T. A., Gollwitzer, A., & Oettingen, G. (2013). From fantasy to action: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) improves academic performance in children. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 745-753. doi: 10.1177/1948550613476307
  • Gawrilow, C., Morgenroth, K., Schultz, R., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Mental contrasting with implementation intentions enhances self-regulation of goal pursuit in schoolchildren at risk for ADHD. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 134-145. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9288-3
  • Gollwitzer, P. M., Gantman, A., & Oettingen, G. (2013). Intention. In B. Kaldis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of philosophy and the social sciences. London, UK: Sage Publications.
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  • Houssais, S., Oettingen, G., & Mayer, D. (2013). Using mental contrasting with implementation intentions to self-regulate insecurity-based behaviors in relationships. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 224-233. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9307-4
  • Kappes, A., Wendt, M., Reinelt, & Oettingen (2013). Mental contrasting changes the meaning of reality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 797-810. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.03.010
  • Kappes, H. B., Sharma, E., & Oettingen, G. (2013). Positive fantasies dampen charitable giving when many resources are demanded. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23, 128-135.
  • Kirk, D., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Promoting integrative bargaining: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions. International Journal of Conflict Management, 24, 148-165. doi 10.1108/10444061311316771.
  • Maglio, S. J., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2013). Action control by implementation intentions: The role of discrete emotions. In A. Clark, J. Kiverstein, & T. Vierkant (Eds.), Decomposing the will (pp. 221-243). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Oettingen, G., & Schwörer, B. (2013). Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change. Frontiers in Psychology,4:562. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00562
  • Oettingen, G., Wittchen, M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Regulating goal pursuit through Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions. In E. A. Locke & G. P. Latham (Eds.), New developments in goal setting and task performance (pp. 523-548). New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Sevincer, A. T., & Oettingen, G. (2013). Alcohol intake leads people to focus on desirability rather than feasibility. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 165-176. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9285-6
  • Sevincer, A. T., & Oettingen, G. (2013). Spontaneous mental contrasting and selective goal pursuit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 1240-1254. doi: 10.1177/0146167213492428
  • Sheeran, P., Harris, P., Vaughan, J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Gone exercising: Mental contrasting promotes physical activity among overweight, middle-aged, low-SES fishermen. Health Psychology, 32, 802-809. doi:10.1037/a0029293
  • Stern, C., Cole, S., Gollwitzer, P. M., Oettingen, G., & Balcetis, E. (2013). Effects of implementation intentions on anxiety, perceived proximity, and motor performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 623-635. doi: 10.1177/0146167213479612
  • Kappes, A., & Oettingen, G. (2014). The emergence of goal pursuit: Mental contrasting connects future and reality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 54, 25-39. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.03.014
  • Longoni, C., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2014). A green paradox: Validating green choices has ironic effects on behavior, cognition, and perception. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 158-165. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.09.010
  • Martiny-Huenger, T., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2014). Distractor devaluation in a flanker task: Object-specific effects without distractor recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40, 613-625. doi: 10.1037/a0034130
  • Oettingen, G., Ahn, J. N., Gollwitzer, P. M., Kappes, A., & Kawada, C. L. K. (2014). Goal projection and giving help. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 54, 204-214. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.05.005
  • Sevincer, A. T., Busatta, P. D., & Oettingen, G. (2014). Mental contrasting and transfer of energization. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 139-152. doi:10.1177/0146167213507088
  • Sevincer, A. T., Kluge, L., & Oettingen, G. (2014). Implicit theories and motivational focus: Desired future versus present reality. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 36-46. doi:10.1007/s11031-013-9359-0
  • Sevincer, A. T., & Oettingen, G. (2014). Alcohol myopia and goal commitment. Frontiers in Psychology,5:169. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00169
  • Sevincer, A. T., & Oettingen, G. (2014). Future thought and the self-regulation of energization. In G. H. E. Gendolla, M. Tops, & S. Koole (Eds.), Biobehavioral approaches to self-regulation (pp. 315-329). New York: Springer.
  • Sevincer, A. T., Wagner, G., Kalvelage, J., & Oettingen, G. (2014). Positive thinking about the future in newspaper reports and presidential addresses predicts economic downturn. Psychological Science, 25(4), 1010-1017. doi: 10.1177/0956797613518350

About Gabriele Oettingen

Gabriele Oettingen is a Professor of Psychology at New York University and the University of Hamburg. She is the author of more than a 100 articles and book chapters on thinking about the future and the control of cognition, emotion, and behavior. She received her Ph.D. from the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology in Seewiesen, Germany.

Her major contribution to the field is research on the perils of positive thinking and on Mental Contrasting, a self-regulation technique that is effective for mastering one’s everyday life and long-term development. Gabriele Oettingen’s work is published in social and personality psychology, developmental and educational psychology, in health and clinical psychology, in organizational and consumer psychology, as well as in neuropsychological and medical journals. Her findings contribute to the burgeoning literature on life style change and businesses and institutions have increasingly become interested in the application of her research.

Her first trade book, RETHINKING POSITIVE THINKING: Inside the New Science of Motivation will be published by Current, an imprint of Penguin Random House, in October 2014.
 

Oettingen 'WISH'

Wish

Oettingen 'OUTCOME'

Outcome

Oettingen 'OBSTACLE'

Obstacle

Oettingen 'PLAN'

Plan

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